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Original titleDer Fleischatlas
LanguageEnglish and German
SubjectMeat production, intensive animal agriculture, environment
PublisherHeinrich Böll Foundation and Friends of the Earth Europe

Publication date

January 2014
Media typeOnline / print

Meat Atlas (Der Fleischatlas) is an annual report, published by the Heinrich Böll Foundation and Friends of the Earth Europe, on the methods and impact of industrial animal agriculture.[1] Consisting of 27 short essays by different authors, the report aims to inform consumers about the impact of meat consumption on global poverty, climate change, animal welfare, biodiversity, and the migration of workers.[2]

Meat Atlas was first published in German in 2013, and in German and English in 2014, both under a Creative Commons license (CC BY-SA 3.0). The executive editors are Christine Chemnitz of the Heinrich Böll Foundation and Stanka Becheva of Friends of the Earth Europe.[3]



Magda Stoczkiewicz, director of Friends of the Earth Europe, argues in the report that "[n]othing epitomizes what is wrong with our food and farming more than the livestock sector and the quest for cheap and plentiful meat."

She writes that livestock farming is one of the biggest greenhouse gas emitters, and is responsible for health pandemics and the use of a significant percentage of the world's grain and water.[4] According to the report, based on figures from the United Nations' Food and Agriculture Organization, the production of 1 kg (2.2 lb) of beef requires 15,455 litres of water (32,662 pints, or 110 bathtubs), cheese 5,000 litres, rice 3,400 litres and carrots 131 litres.[5] Over 75 kg (165 lb) of meat is consumed in the United States per person per year, 60 kg in Germany, 38 kg in China, and under 20 kg in Africa.[1]

The report states that animals are kept in cramped conditions, in artificial light, and fed antibiotics and hormones to ward off disease and speed up growth cheaply.[4] Pigs can reach their market weight with 10–15 percent less food if they are kept on antibiotics, but overuse has created antibiotic-resistant bacteria, so-called "superbugs."[5] Stoczkiewicz argues instead in favour of sustainable farming, where animals are kept in much smaller numbers and are allowed to graze freely, with farmers growing their own crops to feed them.[4]

Meat production[edit]

Through mergers and acquisitions across borders and species, meat production is handled by an ever-diminishing number of large companies.[6] The report lists the world's top-ten meat producers (see right), calculated by total food sales in the years 2011–2013.[7]

JBS, headquartered in São Paulo, Brazil, heads the list. The company's 2012 revenue of $38.7 billion exceeded the gross domestic product of Barbados, Iceland, Mauritius and Zimbabwe combined.[5] JBS is followed by Tyson Foods, Cargill, BRF, Vion, Nippon Meat Packers, Smithfield Foods, Marfrig, and Danish Crown. Just ten companies kill 88 percent of pigs.[7]

Because profit margins are tight, companies aim for greater efficiency and lower costs, with as much profit as possible from "field to fork."[8] According to the report, JBS can accommodate a daily slaughter of 12 million birds, 85,000 head of cattle and 70,000 pigs, the produce of which is sold in 150 countries.[9] Tyson Foods kills 42 million chickens, 350,000 pigs and 170,000 head of cattle every week.[10]

The kind of environment in which this occurs means that pathogens can spread easily, both during slaughter and transport.[7] For the animals it means increased cruelty because of long journeys to slaughterhouses, inadequate stunning, and violence from stressed workers. For the workers, it means low wages, a noisy and highly stressful working environment, and long shifts spent making high-speed repetitive movements with dangerous equipment and frightened animals. For the consumer, it severs the relationship between the animals and the end product on the supermarket shelf.[11]

  • Worldwide meat production

  • Direct subsidies for animal products and feed (in OECD countries)

  • Estimated chicken consumption per person, 2012, in kilograms,

  • Animal genetics industry: the Big Seven global breeders

Accompanying events[edit]

The release of the Meat Atlas in January coincides with the Berlin International Green Week and demonstrations in Berlin themed We are fed up! against industrial livestock production and for more sustainable farming.[12]


  1. ^ abDamien McGuinness, "'Meat Atlas' charts a changing world of meat eaters", BBC News, 9 January 2014.
  2. ^Barbara Unmüßig, Introduction, Meat AtlasArchived 2014-01-11 at the Wayback Machine., 2014, p. 6.
  3. ^Meat Atlas, 2014, back cover.
  4. ^ abcMeat Atlas, 2014, p. 7.
  5. ^ abcMona Chalabi, "Meat atlas shows Latin America has become a soybean empire", The Guardian, 9 January 2014.
  6. ^Meat Atlas, 2014, p. 12.
  7. ^ abcMeat Atlas, 2014, pp. 13–14.
  8. ^Meat Atlas, 2014, pp. 12, 14.
  9. ^Meat AtlasArchived 2014-01-11 at the Wayback Machine., 2014, p. 12: "These figures give us an idea of what JBS's size means on the ground or at the slaughterhouse: its worldwide capacities can slaughter 85,000 head of cattle, 70,000 pigs, and 12 million birds. Every day. The meat is distributed in 150 countries as soon as the carcasses are 'disassembled', i.e. when the flesh is separated from the bone."
    • Also see Luciana Magalhaes and Rogerio Jelmayer, "With Purchase, Brazil's JBS Takes Leading Position in Global Poultry Market", Wall Street Journal, 10 June 2013: "JBS entered the chicken business in Brazil last year, and it also controls U.S. chicken producer Pilgrim's Pride Corp (PPC). With the acquisition, JBS's slaughter capacity will rise to around 12 million birds a day."
    • Bryan Gruley and Lucia Kassai, "Brazilian Meatpacker JBS Wrangles the U.S. Beef Industry", Business Week, 19 September 2013: "In June [2013], JBS said it would assume $2.74 billion of debt to acquire the Seara poultry and processed-food business from Marfrig Alimentos (MRFG3:BZ) of Brazil. When that deal closes, JBS will have $50 billion in annual revenue and the daily capacity to slaughter 85,000 head of cattle, 70,000 hogs, and 12 million birds, about 30 percent of which will be exported to more than 150 countries."
  10. ^Meat Atlas, 2014, p. 14.
  11. ^Meat Atlas, 2014, pp. 14–15.
  12. ^Friends of the Earth Europe, We are fed up: 30,000 march in Berlin, 19 January 2014

Further reading[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Meat Atlas.
  • Meat Atlas, Friends of the Earth, download Meat Atlas as pdf; download summary and policy demands as pdf
  • Meat Atlas, Heinrich Böll Foundation
  • Alexandra Endres, "Fleischatlas – Unser täglich Hormonfleisch", Die Zeit, 9 January 2014.
  • Shefali Sharma, "Germans speaking out against industrial meat and agriculture", Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy, 9 January 2014.
  • "Fleischatlas 2014: Trog, Teller und Sonntagsbraten", Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, 9 January 2014.
  • "Fleischatlas 2014: Pro und Contra Fleisch als Lebensmittel", WDR 5, 9 January 2014.
  • "Alarm over soaring world meat consumption", Deutsche Welle, 9 January 2014.
publication in different languages
World's largest meat producers
European sales of antimicrobial agents for food-producing animals, 2011

Formerly called

Sound of Music (1966)
Best Buy Co. Superstores (1983)


Traded as
FoundedAs Sound of Music: August 22, 1966; 51 years ago (1966-08-22)
As Best Buy: 1983 (1983)
West St. Paul, Minnesota, U.S.
FounderRichard M. Schulze
HeadquartersRichfield, Minnesota, United States

Number of locations

1,026 (October 29, 2016[1])

Areas served

United States & Canada

Key people

Hubert Joly
(Chairman and CEO)
ProductsConsumer electronics
Revenue$44.092 billion[2] (2016)

Operating income

$1.975 billion (2016)

Net income

$997.24 million (2016)
Total assets$14.119 billion (2016)
Total equity$4.766 billion (2016)

Number of employees

125,000 (2016)
DivisionsBest Buy Canada
SubsidiariesGeek Squad
Pacific Sales

Best Buy is an American multinationalconsumer electronics corporation headquartered in Richfield, Minnesota, a Minneapolis suburb. Internationally, it also operates in Canada and Mexico. It was formerly operational in China until February 2011 (when the faction was merged with Five Star) and in Europe until 2012.[3] The company was founded by Richard M. Schulze and Gary Smoliak in 1966 as an audio specialty store named Sound of Music. In 1983, it was renamed and rebranded with more emphasis placed on consumer electronics.

Best Buy's subsidiaries include Geek Squad, Magnolia Audio Video, and Pacific Sales. Best Buy operates under the Best Buy, Best Buy Mobile, Geek Squad, Magnolia Audio Video, Insignia and Pacific Sales brands in the United States; the Best Buy, Geek Squad and Best Buy Mobile brands in Canada; Best Buy Mobile and Five Star in China; and Best Buy, Best Buy Express, and Geek Squad in Mexico.[3] Best Buy sells cellular phones from Verizon Wireless, AT&T Mobility, Sprint Corporation, and Boost Mobile[4] in regular stores and standalone Best Buy Mobile stores in shopping malls. Best Buy was named "Company of the Year" by Forbes magazine in 2004,[5] "Specialty Retailer of the Decade" by Discount Store News in 2001,[6] ranked in the Top 10 of "America's Most Generous Corporations" by Forbes in 2005 (based on 2004 giving),[7] and made Fortune magazine's list of "Most Admired Companies" in 2006.[8]Hubert Joly serves as Best Buy's chairman and CEO.[9]

According to Yahoo! Finance, Best Buy is the largest specialty retailer in the U.S. consumer electronics retail industry.[10]


Early history[edit]

In August 1966, Richard M. Schulze and a business partner opened Sound of Music, an electronics store specializing in high fidelity stereos in Saint Paul, Minnesota.[11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20] Schulze financed the opening of his first store with his personal savings and a second mortgage he took out on his family’s home.[19][21] In 1967, Sound of Music acquired Kencraft Hi-Fi Company and Bergo Company.[21] Sound of Music earned $1 million in revenue and made about $58,000 in profits in its first year.[19] In 1969, Schulze bought out his business partner. Sound of Music had three stores and became a publicly held company listed on the NASDAQ exchange.[19][22]

Sound of Music operated nine stores throughout Minnesota by 1978.[23] In 1981, the Roseville, Minnesota, Sound of Music location, at the time the largest and most profitable Sound of Music store, was hit by a tornado.[19] The store’s roof was sheared off and showroom destroyed, but the storeroom was left intact.[19][24] In response, Schulze decided to have a “Tornado Sale” of damaged and excess stock in the damaged store’s parking lot.[19] He poured the remainder of his marketing budget into advertising the sale, promising “best buys” on everything.[24] Sound of Music made more money during the four-day sale than it did in a typical month.[20]

In 1983, with seven stores and $10 million in annual sales, Sound of Music was renamed Best Buy Company, Inc.[23][24] The company also expanded its product offerings to include home appliances and VCRs, in an attempt to expand beyond its then-core customer base of 15-to-18-year-old males.[24] Later that year Best Buy opened its first superstore in Burnsville, Minnesota.[24] The Burnsville location featured a high-volume, low price business model, which was borrowed partially from Schulze’s successful Tornado Sale in 1981.[19][24] In its first year, the Burnsville store out-performed all other Best Buy stores combined.[20][21]

Best Buy debuted on the New York Stock Exchange in 1987.[25][26] In 1989, the company introduced a new store concept dubbed “Concept II.”[21][25] Concept II replaced dimly lit industrial-style stores with brighter and more fashionably fixtured stores.[21] Stores also began placing all stock on the sales floor rather than in a stock room, had fewer salespersons and provided more self-help product information for its customers.[25][26] Best Buy also did away with commissioned salespeople.[19][25] The commission-free sales environment “created a more relaxed shopping environment free of the high-pressure sales tactics used in other stores,” but was unpopular with salespersons and suppliers.[25] Some suppliers, such as Maytag, Whirlpool and Sony, were upset that salespeople would no longer be pushing their products and stopped selling their wares in Best Buy stores.[19][20] The suppliers returned after Best Buy’s sales and revenue grew following the roll-out of Concept II.[24]

In 1992, the company achieved $1 billion in annual revenues.[26] In 1995, Best Buy debuted “Concept III” stores, which were larger than its previous stores.[26][27] The Concept III stores included expanded product offerings, interactive touchscreen kiosks that displayed product information for both customers and employees, and demonstration areas for products such as surround sound stereo systems and videogames.[27][28]

Best Buy launched its “Concept IV” stores with its expansion into New England in 1998.[26][29] Concept IV stores included an open layout with products organized by category, cash registers located throughout the store, and slightly smaller stores than Concept III stores.[30] The stores also had large areas for demonstrating home theater systems and computer software.[26][31]

In 1999, Best Buy was added to Standard & Poor'sS&P 500.[26]


In 2000, Best Buy formed Redline Entertainment, an independent music label and action-sports video distributor.[32] The company acquired Magnolia Hi-Fi, Inc., an audio-video retailer located in California, Washington and Oregon, in December 2000.[26]

In January 2001, Best Buy acquired Musicland Stores Corporation, a Minnetonka, Minnesota-based retailer that sold home entertainment products under the Sam Goody, Suncoast Motion Picture Company, Media Play and OnCue brands.[26][33] Best Buy purchased the company for $425 million in cash and the assumption of $271 million of Musicland debt.[26][33] Later that year, Best Buy acquired the British Columbia, Canada-based electronics-chain Future Shop Ltd., marking its entrance to the international marketplace.[26][34] Under the deal, Future Shop was purchased for approximately $377 million and continued to operate as subsidiary independent from Best Buy Canada.[35][36]

Brad Anderson succeeded Richard Schulze as Best Buy CEO in July 2002.[37] Anderson had begun working at Best Buy in 1973 while attending seminary school.[37] He was promoted to vice president in 1981 and executive vice president in 1986. Anderson had most recently served as president and COO of Best Buy, a position he had held since 1991.[37] In September of that year, Best Buy opened the first Canadian Best Buy-branded store in Mississauga, Ontario.[38] In October, Best Buy acquired Minneapolis, Minnesota-based Geek Squad, then a 24-hour residential computer repair business with offices in Minneapolis, Chicago, Illinois, Los Angeles, California and San Francisco, California.[37]

Best Buy stores in the U.S. surpassed the 600-store mark and the company opened its first global-sourcing office in Shanghai, China in 2003.[39][40] In June, Best Buy divested itself of Musicland in a deal with Sun Capital Partners under which Sun Capital received all of Musicland’s stock and debt.[41] Best Buy launched its “Reward Zone” loyalty program in July following an 8-month test of the program in San Diego, California.[42] Also in 2003, Best Buy’s corporate offices were consolidated into a single campus in Richfield, Minnesota.

In January 2004, Best Buy hired Virtucom Group to revamp Best Buy’s website and handle all of the company’s online content.[43] In May, the company launched its “customer centricty” program, which segmented its stores according to customer profiles.[44] The program also called for employees to focus on specific customer groups rather than product categories.[44] In October, Best Buy completed rolling out Geek Squad “precincts” in every American Best Buy store.[45]

In April 2005, Best Buy began eliminating mail-in rebates in response to negative customer reaction against them, and instead started giving out instant rebates via notebook computers.[46]

In May 2006, Best Buy acquired a majority interest in Chinese appliance retailer Jiangsu Five Star Appliance for $180 million.[47] At the time of the deal, Jiangsu was the fourth-largest appliance chain in China with 193 stores across eight Chinese provinces.[47] In June, the company opened Geek Squad precincts at Office Depot in Orlando, Florida.[42] The market test was later expanded to Denver, Colorado.[48]

In January 2007, the first Best Buy-branded store in China officially opened in Shanghai, China.[49] In March 2007, Best Buy acquired Speakeasy, a Seattle, Washington-based broadband VOIP, data and IT services provider.[50] The acquisition was worth $80 million and, under terms of the deal, Speakeasy began operating as a wholly owned subsidiary of Best Buy.[50] The company’s products also became part of Best Buy’s For Business program.[50] Best Buy also expanded its Geek Squad market tests in March, opening Geek Squad precincts in FedEx Kinkos stores located in Indianapolis, Indiana and Charlotte, North Carolina.[51] In October 2007, Best Buy became the first consumer-electronics retailer to exit the analog television market, carrying only digital products that became mandatory in June 2009 by the FCC.[52]

In February 2008, Best Buy opened its first store in San Juan, Puerto Rico.[53] Best Buy’s Geek Squad market tests in Office Depot and FedEx Kinkos stores ended by March.[54] Also in March, the company began promoting the Blu-ray optical-disc format over the HD DVD format, a move which ultimately contributed to Toshiba's decision to drop HD DVD.[55] In May, the company agreed to buy 50% of the retail division of The Carphone Warehouse, a London, England-based mobile phone retailer.[56][57] The deal was worth $2.1 billion.[57]

In July 2008, Best Buy announced that it would start selling musical instruments and related gear in over 80 of its retail stores, making the company the second-largest musical-instrument distributor in the US.[58] Best Buy became the first third-party retail seller of Apple’siPhone in September.[59] Later that month, the company agreed to acquire Napster for $121 million.[60] In December, Best Buy opened its first store in Mexico.[61]

In February 2009, Best Buy leveraged its partnership with The Carphone Warehouse to launch Best Buy Mobile, a Best Buy-branded mobile retailer.[62] Best Buy Mobile standalone stores were opened in shopping malls and urban downtowns.[62] Best Buy Mobile were also added in all Best Buy-branded stores.[62]

In June 2009, Brian Dunn became Best Buy CEO.[63] Dunn replaced Brad Anderson, who was retiring.[63] Dunn had joined Best Buy in 1985 as a sales associate.[64] In 2000, Dunn became senior vice president of East Coast operations and president of North American retail operations in 2004.[64] He had most recently served as president of Best Buy, a position he had held since 2006.[64]

Best Buy partnered with Roxio's CinemaNow to launch an on-demand movie download service that would allow customers to stream content to any device sold by Best Buy that connected to the Internet in November 2009.[65] In December, the first Turkish Best Buy opened in İzmir.


In April 2010, Best Buy opened its first United Kingdom-based Best Buy-branded store in Thurrock.[66] The company eventually opened 11 Best Buy stores in the United Kingdom.[67] The company closed all UK-based Best Buy stores in November 2011.[67] That same month Best Buy purchased The Carphone Warehouse’s share of Best Buy Mobile for $1.3 billion.[67] Best Buy and The Carphone Warehouse maintained their Best Buy Europe joint venture, which at the time operated 2,500 mobile phone stores throughout Europe.[67]

The company closed all of its Best Buy-branded stores in China by February 2011, when it merged Best Buy China’s operations with Jiangsu Five Star, which had become a wholly owned subsidiary of Best Buy in 2009.[3][68] In December 2011, Best Buy purchased mindSHIFT Technologies, a company that provided IT support for small and medium-sized businesses, for $167 million.[69]

In 2012, in response to overall revenue decline, Best Buy announced plans to undergo a "transformation strategy". Stores began to adopt a redesigned "Connected Store" format, providing the Geek Squad with a centralized service desk and implementing a "store-within-a-store" concept for Pacific Kitchen & Bath and Magnolia Design Center.[70]

In April 2012, Brian Dunn resigned as Best Buy’s CEO during an internal company investigation into allegations of personal misconduct stemming from an inappropriate relationship with a female Best Buy employee.[71] Best Buy named Director George L. Mikan III interim CEO following Dunn’s resignation.[71] The internal investigation was released in May 2012 and alleged that Best Buy founder and chairman Richard Schulze knew of Dunn’s inappropriate relationship and failed to notify the Best Buy board.[71] Schulze subsequently resigned his chairmanship of the company.[71] Best Buy Director Hatim Tyabji replaced Schulze as Best Buy chairman.[71]

Hubert Joly replaced Mikan as Best Buy CEO in September 2012. Joly had previously served as CEO of Carlson, a hospitality conglomerate, since 2008. He led initiatives such as price matching, speeding up delivery times for online purchases, establishing "store within a store" sections for major brands such as Apple, Google, Microsoft and Samsung, and giving more product training to employees.[73]

In April 2013, Best Buy exited the European consumer electronics market when it sold its 50% stake in Carphone Warehouse back to the UK-based mobile phone retailer.[74][75] The sale was worth approximately $775 million.[74][75]

An increasing trend towards online shopping began to erode revenues and profits in the 2010s. A 4% dip in sales for the June 30, 2014 quarter, marked the tenth quarter in a row where Best Buy's sales had declined. The company, in announcing the result, said it was focusing more on digital-media in its marketing, moving away from newspaper, magazine, and television advertising.[76]

On March 28, 2015, Best Buy announced the shutdown of the Future Shop chain in Canada; 65 of its 131 former locations were converted into Best Buy locations, while the rest (primarily those in close proximity to an existing Best Buy) were closed permanently.[77]

On March 1, 2018, the company announced that it would shut down its 250 standalone Best Buy Mobile stores in the United States by the end of May, due to low revenue.[78]

Corporate affairs[edit]

Business operations[edit]

See also: Best Buy Europe

Best Buy sells consumer electronics and a variety of related merchandise, including software, video games, music, mobile phones, digital cameras, car stereos and video cameras, in addition to home appliances (washing machines, dryers, and refrigerators), in a non-commissioned sales environment.[3] Under the Geek Squad brand, Best Buy offers computer repair, warranty service, and accidental service plans.[3]

The building exteriors of Best Buy-branded stores are typically light brown, with the entrance designed to look like a blue box emerging from the structure.[79] Corporate employees operated under a results only work environment from 2005 until March 2013, when the management style was abandoned by Best Buy CEO Hubert Joly.[80][81]

As of October 29, 2016, Best Buy operated 1,026 Best Buy, 331 Best Buy Mobile stand-alone stores and 28 stand-alone Pacific Sales stores in the US.[1][3] Best Buy also operated: 135 Best Buy and 53 Best Buy Mobile stand-alone stores in Canada; and 18 Best Buy stores and 5 Best Buy Express stores in Mexico.[3] Best Buy exited the European market in April 2013.[74][75]

House brands[edit]

Best Buy also produces products under eight house brands:[3]

  • Dynex – Discount electronic and computer equipment such as HDTVs, Blu-ray players, storage media, data and power cables, webcams, and office supplies.
  • RocketFish – Cables primarily used with home-theater installation and setup as well as on computer and gaming accessories. RocketFish Mobile includes phone cases, gel skins, clips and chargers for cell phones, GPS, and other exclusive high-end products.
  • Insignia – Electronic equipment such as HDTVs, tablets, home-theater systems, and digital imaging devices.
  • Modal – Used for style-oriented mobile accessories, including cases, cables, and Bluetooth speakers.
  • Platinum – Highest-quality in-house brand for the company, producing many products, such as cables, cell phone accessories, tablet accessories, and digital imaging equipment.
  • Init – Storage products such as media storage, equipment bags, totes and furniture for home theaters.
  • Pacific Sales – High-end appliance selection inside select Best Buy stores.
  • Magnolia Home Theater – High-end home theater selection for both audio and visual equipment, including 4K, 3D, and large televisions, projectors, receivers, and speakers. Magnolia Home Theater is found in select Best Buy locations. Magnolia Home Theater also has a group called the Magnolia Design Center, where custom home theater setups can be designed and installed.



In 2000, two Florida consumers brought a lawsuit against the company, alleging that it engaged in fraudulent business practices related to the sale of extended warranties (or, more accurately, service plans). The suit claimed that store employees had misrepresented the manufacturer's warranty in order to sell its own Product Service/Replacement Plan and that Best Buy had "entered into a corporate-wide scheme to institute high-pressure sales techniques involving the extended warranties" and that the company used "artificial barriers to discourage consumers who purchased the 'complete extended warranties' from making legitimate claims."[82] The company ultimately settled for $200,000 but admitted no wrongdoing.[83]

In 2014, Best Buy settled for $4.55 million in a class action lawsuit filed against them in April 2010 by consumers who claimed Best Buy was making unsolicited phone calls in contravention of the Telephone Consumer Protection Act.[84]


In the second quarter of 2007, Connecticut Attorney GeneralRichard Blumenthal ordered an investigation into the company's use of an in-store website alleged to have misled customers on item sales prices.[85] In December 2007, the Los Angeles Times reported on the same issue, in which some customers claimed they thought they were surfing the Internet version of at an in-store kiosk only to learn that the site reflected in-store prices only. In response, company spokesperson Sue Busch indicated the in-store kiosks were not intended for price-match purposes and rather were a means to navigate in-store availability. Since the initial investigation, a banner was placed on the in-store site to make its customers more aware of the difference.[86]

Similar pricing errors occurred in July 2009, when the Palm Premultimediasmartphone was mistakenly sold for $99.99 (versus the retail price of $199.99), and Best Buy honored some of the sales.[citation needed] Best Buy regularly exercises the right to cancel orders associated with errors on its website.[citation needed]

Analog televisions[edit]

In April 2008, the U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) fined the company $280,000 for not alerting customers that the analog televisions it sold would not receive over-the-air stations after the digital transition on June 12, 2009.[87] The company challenged this ruling in May 2008 by the FCC saying it was and is in compliance with current FCC regulations pertaining to the digital transition.[88]

Environmental issues[edit]

It was one of several large companies named by Greenpeace in 2007 for purchasing raw materials or manufactured products derived thereof from logging companies that, in the opinion of Greenpeace, contribute to unethical deforestation of taiga in Canada.[89]

Since that time, however, the company launched what it calls Greener Together to increase the energy efficiency of its products as well as reduce consumer waste through more recyclable packaging and proper disposal of certain electronic components such as rechargeable batteries, and empty ink cartridges.[90]

As a way to improve its image and past environmental issues, the company introduced a recycling program in 2009 that has since collected nearly half-a-billion pounds of consumer electronics and e-waste and is available at all their stores for a nominal fee. These items are then handed over to certified recyclers in the U.S. for proper recycling. The company's goal is to collect one billion pounds of recycling.[91]

It also has been named to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency top-50 list of the largest green-power purchasers. In 2011, the company purchased nearly 119 million kilowatt-hours (kWh) of green power – electricity generated from renewable resources, such as wind, solar, geothermal, biogas, biomass and low-impact hydropower.[92]


Former Best Buy Store located in Shanghai, China, now closed and merged with Five Star.
Map of Best Buy stores in the Continental U.S and Southern Canada, as of August 2011
Salesman demonstrating the Apple iPad 2 (June 2011)
  1. ^ ab"Securities and Exchange Commission Form 10-Q"(PDF). Best Buy. December 2, 2016. Retrieved May 16, 2017. 
  2. ^"Fiscal 2016 Annual Report"(PDF). Best Buy. March 23, 2016. Retrieved May 16, 2017. 
  3. ^ abcdefgh"Form 10-K Best Buy". United States Securities and Exchange Commission. Retrieved 14 January 2014. 
  4. ^"Parter Portfolio". Zoom Systems. Archived from the original on January 15, 2011. Retrieved December 31, 2012. 
  5. ^Tatge, Mark (January 12, 2004). "Company of the Year – Fun & Games". Forbes. Retrieved August 9, 2012. 
  6. ^"DSN Honors Best Buy with Specialty Retailer Award". Discount Store News (via EBSCO Host). Retrieved December 31, 2012. 
  7. ^Moyer, Liz (November 11, 2005). "Charitable Giving – The Most Charitable Companies". Forbes. Retrieved August 9, 2012. 
  8. ^Staff. "America's Most Admired Companies 2006". Fortune (via Retrieved August 9, 2012. 
  9. ^Thomas Lee (19 August 2013). "A year on the job with Best Buy CEO Hubert Joly". Star Tribune. Retrieved January 14, 2013. 
  10. ^Bailey, Sharon (January 19, 2015). "Best Buy: The largest consumer electronics retailer". Yahoo! Finance. Retrieved July 13, 2017. 
  11. ^"The best deals from Best Buy's 50th anniversary sale". USA Today. 2016-08-19. Retrieved 2016-08-21. 
  12. ^"Best Buy Is Celebrating Its 50th Birthday With 50 Hours of Discounts". Fortune. 2016-08-18. Retrieved 2016-08-21. 
  13. ^"The best deals from Best Buy's 50th anniversary sale". Kitsap Sun. 2016-08-19. Retrieved 2016-08-21. 
  14. ^"Best Buy celebrates 50 years with 50 hours of discounts". CNBC. 2016-08-18. Retrieved 2016-08-21. 
  15. ^"Best Buy Celebrating 50 Years With 50 Hours of Deals - News & Opinion -". PC Magazine. 2016-08-18. Retrieved 2016-08-21. 
  16. ^"Best Buy to celebrate 50th anniversary with 50-hour sale - MarketWatch". MarketWatch. 2016-08-18. Retrieved 2016-08-21. 
  17. ^"iPhone and MacBook Pro Deals for Best Buy's 50th Anniversary - Teen Vogue". Teen Vogue. 2016-08-18. Retrieved 2016-08-21. 
  18. ^"Best Buy Co Inc (BBY.N) Company Profile -". Reuters. Retrieved 2016-03-23. 
  19. ^ abcdefghijWeimer, De'Ann (22 June 1998). "The Houdini of consumer electronics. / R. M. Schulze;". Business Week. 
  20. ^ abcdJackie Crosby (20 May 2012). "One man's force of will built a retailing empire". Star Tribune (Mpls.-St. Paul). 
  21. ^ abcdePete Hisey (19 September 1994). "Richard Schulze – specialty discounter of the year: making an impact by adopting the features of full-line discounters. (SPARC Awards 1993: Supplier Performance Awards by Retail Category)". Discount Store News. 
  22. ^"The origins of best buy". Music Trades. 156.8. September 2008. p. 27. 
  23. ^ ab"Best Buy, by the years". StarTribune. Minneapolis-St. Paul. 15 May 2012. Archived from the original on May 20, 2012. 
  24. ^ abcdefgGruley, Bryan; McCracken, Jeffrey; Burritt, Chris (22 October 2012). "BEST GUY?". Bloomberg Businessweek. 
  25. ^ abcde"Retail entrepreneurs of the year: Dick Schulze. Chain Store Age". 75 (12). Chain Store Age. December 1999. 
  26. ^ abcdefghijk"International Directory of Company Histories". 63. St. James Press. 2004. 
  27. ^ ab"Best Buy opens Concept III stores". 33 (21). Discount Store News. November 7, 1994. p. 6. 
  28. ^"BEST BUY OPENS CONCEPT III". Consumer Electronics. October 31, 1994. 
  29. ^LAURA HELLER (26 October 1998). "Best Buy's Concept IV enters New England". Discount Store NewsDSN. 
  30. ^Janet Moore. "A new format for Best Buy // Concept IV focus is on high-tech in a smaller store // Best Buy's latest store concept will make its Twin Cities debut today at its Maplewood location. Signs will be more readable and several store areas will feature hands-on technology". Star-Tribune Newspaper. 
  31. ^NORA LOCKWOOD TOOHER. "New kid on the block – Electronics giant to open stores in R.I., Mass". The Providence JournalPROV. 
  32. ^"Best Buy Realigns Marketing Positions; Efforts Focus on Building Area of Digital Services". PR Newswire. 5 January 2000. 
  34. ^LAURA HELLER. "Best Buy acquisition rings national note". Discount Store News. 
  35. ^"Saint Paul Pioneer Press, Minn., Business Briefs Column". 6 November 2001.